Main Article Content
Breast ptosis, Predisposing factors, Breast cosmetics
Background: Despite being a frequent plastic surgery complaint, the causes and predisposing factors for breast ptosis have not been studied profoundly. Studying ptosis causative factors will improve prevention, patient select and education, surgical outcome, and patient education. The present study aims to demonstrate the potential predisposing factors for breast ptosis.
Methods: In a 6-month study was conducted at the research department of Kaviani Breast Diseases Institute, Tehran, Iran, all female patients referring to the breast clinic were assessed. Patients with a background of severe comorbidities, history of breast surgery, and breast cancer were excluded. Data on demographic characteristics, current and past medical history, physical examination, and ptosis presence grade were collected.
Results: A total number of 141 patients, with the mean age of 35.8 years, were included. About 72% of the patients had varying grades of breast ptosis. Patients with ptosis tended to be of older age, weight, BMI, and brassiere size, were more likely to be menopausal, and had begun wearing brassiere at younger ages. The ordinal model revealed an association between ptosis and age, age at wearing brassiere, current breast size, and smaller cup size in patients.
Conclusion: We suggest age and breast size as the predisposing factors for breast ptosis. In our study, there was no relation between breast ptosis and history of lactation or the number of pregnancies. The effects of hormonal and menstrual status, as well as drinking and smoking habits, need to be investigated further.
2. Rinker B, Veneracion M, Walsh CP. Breast ptosis: causes and cure. Ann Plast Surg. 2010;64(5):579-84.
3. Kaviani A, Safavi A, Mohammadzadeh N, Jamei K, Ansari-Damavandi M, Salmon RJ. Oncoplastic surgery in breast conservation: a prospective evaluation of the patients, techniques, and oncologic outcomes. Am J Surg. 2014;208(5):727-34.
4. Najafi M, Salmon R, Kaviani A. Oncological Outcome of Oncoplastic Breast Surgery: A Review of the Literature. Archives of Breast Cancer. 2015;2(1):5-14.
5. Higdon KK, Grotting JC. Mastopexy. Plastic Surgery: Breast. 5. 3rd ed: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013. p. 119-51.
6. Nahai F, Boehm KA. CHAPTER 30 - Superior Pedicle Extension Mastopexy A2 - Hall-Findlay, Elizabeth J. In: Evans GRD, editor. Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Breast. Edinburgh: W.B. Saunders; 2010. p. 475-82.
7. Gartner LM, Morton J, Lawrence RA, Naylor AJ, O'Hare D, Schanler RJ, et al. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2005;115(2):496-506.
8. Ryan AS, Zhou W, Arensberg MB. The effect of employment status on breastfeeding in the United States. Womens Health Issues. 2006;16(5):243-51.
9. Weichert C. Breast-feeding: First thoughts. Pediatrics. 1975;56(6):987-90.
10. Foster SF, Slade P, Wilson K. Body image, maternal fetal attachment, and breast feeding. J Psychosom Res. 1996;41(2):181-4.
11. McLennan JD. Early termination of breast-feeding in periurban Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: mothers' community perceptions and personal practices. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2001;9(6):362-7.
12. Pisacane A, Continisio P, Italian Work Group on B. Breastfeeding and perceived changes in the appearance of the breasts: a retrospective study. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93(10):1346-8.
13. Regnault P. Breast ptosis. Definition and treatment. Clin Plast Surg. 1976;3(2):193-203.
14. BSI. Size Designation of Clothes – Part 1: Terms, Definitions and Body Measurement Procedure. . Milton Keynes: British Standards Institute; 2001. p. BS EN 13402-1
15. BSI. Size Designation of Clothes - Part 2: Primary and secondary dimensions. London: BSI Standards; 2002. p. BS EN 13402-2
16. BSI. Size Designation of Clothes - Part 3: Measurements and Intervals.: BSI Standards; 2004. p. BS EN 13402-3
17. Magee J, McClelland B, Winder J. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy. J Anat. 2012;221(3):240-51.
18. Daniell HW. Smoker's wrinkles. A study in the epidemiology of "crow's feet". Ann Intern Med. 1971;75(6):873-80.
19. Boyd AS, Stasko T, King LE, Jr., Cameron GS, Pearse AD, Gaskell SA. Cigarette smoking-associated elastotic changes in the skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999;41(1):23-6.
20. Nikfarjam A, Hajimaghsoudi S, Rastegari A, Haghdoost AA, Nasehi AA, Memaryan N, et al. The Frequency of Alcohol Use in Iranian Urban Population: The Results of a National Network Scale Up Survey. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2016;6(2):97-102.