Immunopathological Mechanisms Observed in the Intratumoral Microenvironment and Their Relationship with Worse Prognosis in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Immunopathological mechanisms in TNBC

Josué Mondragón Morales (1), Rogelio Rogel-Alvarado (2), Iris Alejandra Noverón-Figueroa (3), Max Morales-Gutierrez (4)
(1) Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Salvador Díaz Mirón esq. Plan de San Luis S/N, Miguel Hidalgo, Casco de Santo Tomás, México City, México, Mexico,
(2) Facultad de Enfermería y Obstetricia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Camino Viejo a Xochimilco y Viaducto Tlalpan S/N. San Lorenzo Huipulco, Tlalpan, México City, México, Mexico,
(3) Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Salvador Díaz Mirón esq. Plan de San Luis S/N, Miguel Hidalgo, Casco de Santo Tomás, México City, México, Mexico,
(4) Universidad Westhill, Domingo García Ramos Nº 56, Cuajimalpa Col. Prados de la Montaña, México City, México, Mexico


Background: In the 21st century, the main cause of death in both sexes worldwide is cardiovascular disease, followed by neoplasms. In women, the main cause of morbidity and mortality is breast cancer. Therefore, understanding the immunological mechanisms associated breast cancer and its correlation with poor prognosis is very important.

Methods: In this study, a search was done on PubMed and Google Scholar, using the following medical subject headings (MeSH) in the search engine: “triple negative breast cancer”, “breast cancer microenvironment”, “immune cells”, “prognosis”, “regulatory t reg”, “T cells” and “tumor-associated neutrophils”. Thus, a total of 81 articles were found and reviewed, published between 2002 and 2023.

Results and conclusions: It is essential to understand the immunological mechanisms associated with the tumor microenvironment, to create new targeted treatment schemes for each variant of breast cancer, for example triple negative in order to reduce the mortality rate and increase disease-free survival. 

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Josué Mondragón Morales (Primary Contact)
Rogelio Rogel-Alvarado
Iris Alejandra Noverón-Figueroa
Max Morales-Gutierrez
Mondragón Morales J, Rogel-Alvarado R, Noverón-Figueroa IA, Morales-Gutierrez M. Immunopathological Mechanisms Observed in the Intratumoral Microenvironment and Their Relationship with Worse Prognosis in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Immunopathological mechanisms in TNBC. Arch Breast Cancer [Internet]. 2024 Jan. 31 [cited 2024 Jul. 16];11(1):1-12. Available from:

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