Miscellaneous Exogenous Hormones and Breast Diseases: A Matter of Concern for the Gynecologist

Main Article Content

Sadaf Alipour
Amirhossein Eskandari

Keywords

Breast cancer, Finasteride, Implant, Intrauterine device, Medroxyprogesterone, Spironolactone

Abstract

Background: The effect of exogenous sex hormones on the risk of breast cancer has been shown for some compounds but for other compounds it is under detailed investigation. This study, as part of a quadruple of articles reviewing the consequences of using sex hormones in women with various breast conditions, discusses the prescription of non-oral hormonal contraceptives and miscellaneous exogenous steroid hormones.


Methods: We browsed international clinical guidelines and carried out a comprehensive search in the literature by relevant keywords in order to extract data about the effects of hormone-releasing intrauterine devices, injectable depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, contraceptive implants, cyproterone acetate, finasteride, and spironolactone on the breast.


Results: Studies are scarce for most of these compounds, and information comes mainly from researches about oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. Although none is recommended for use in patients with breast cancer, administration in benign disorders of the breast, women with positive family history of breast cancer and general women is acceptable with minor risks.


Conclusions: Most non-oral hormonal methods of contraception and miscellaneous available hormone compounds prescribed for the treatment of hormonal disorders are safe for temporary use, except for women with breast cancer. For them, analogues of gonadotropin-releasing hormones may be considered a safe hormonal prescription.

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