Background: Breast cancer (BC) screening and awareness programs are held annually for Iranian women by the collaboration of several governmental and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) organizations. We designed a study to assess the effect of the campaign on women's awareness, education, and the outcome of previously unnoticed breast lesions detected during the campaign screening program.
Methods: Through online social media announcements, women were invited to participate in this campaign held in five locations in the capital of Iran. Participants filled a questionnaire about personal data, previous breast problems, BC awareness and screening attitudes. BC screening was only performed via breast examination by surgeons for all women. We called all participants who required further investigation after two years.
Results: In this campaign, 418 women with a mean age of 43.19±49.11 were examined. About 42% had some information about BC, mainly acquired from the media. Among women over 50, 30.2% had no previous screenings, and 15.9% had not been referred despite having symptoms. Among the women who needed further investigations according to the campaign evaluation, 71.8% complied with the recommendation to follow-up their case, and two women were diagnosed with BC.
Conclusion: Women need more education in the field of BC awareness, and the need for screening; especially after the age of 50. To achieve these goals, using mass media is highly recommended and the experience of the successful campaigns held by a Charity organization and an academic center might be a good guide for preparing a comprehensive protocol.
Full text article
Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon FIAfRoCAfhgift, accessed [12 June 2022].
Rafiemanesh H, Salehiniya H, Lotfi Z. Breast cancer in Iranian woman: Incidence by age group, morphology and trends. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(3):1393-7.
Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL, Laversanne M, Soerjomataram I, Jemal A, et al. Global Cancer Statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2021;71(3):209-49. doi:10.3322/caac.21660.
Bray F, McCarron P, Parkin DM. The changing global patterns of female breast cancer incidence and mortality. Breast Cancer Res. 2004;6(6):1-11. doi: 10.1186/bcr932.
Daroudi R, Sari AA, Nahvijou A, Kalaghchi B, Najafi M, Zendehdel K. The economic burden of breast cancer in Iran. Iranian J Public Health. 2015;44(9):1225-33.
Epplein M, Zheng Y, Zheng W, Chen Z, Gu K, Penson D, et al. Quality of life after breast cancer diagnosis and survival. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(4):406-12. doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.30.6951.
Grey N, McMikel A. The growing burden of cancer and the role of NGOs. Cancer Control. 2003:142-5.
Jacobsen GD, Jacobsen KH. Health awareness campaigns and diagnosis rates: evidence from National Breast Cancer Awareness Month. J Health Econ. 2011;30(1):55-61. doi:10.1016/j.jhealeco.2010.11.005.
Nahvijou A, Mohagheghi MA, Guiti M, Mahouri A, Tabari NF, Raesspour F, et al. The Role of Cancer Charities in Breast Cancer Prevention in Iran. Basic & Clin Cancer Res. 2020;12(4):166-76. doi:10.18502/bccr.v12i4.7984.
Lauby-Secretan B, Scoccianti C, Loomis D, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Bouvard V, Bianchini F, et al. Breast-cancer screening—viewpoint of the IARC Working Group. New Eng J Med. 2015;372(24):2353-8. doi:10.1056/NEJMsr1504363.
Biancovilli P, Makszin L, Csongor A. Breast cancer on social media: a quali-quantitative study on the credibility and content type of the most shared news stories. BMC Women's Health. 2021;21(1):1-11. doi:10.1186/s12905-021-01352-y.
Sinha N, Sharma A. Understanding social media usage and engagement among women to inform breast cancer knowledge and prevention practices: Cross-sectional study in Delhi-National Capital Region of India. Indian J Community Med. 2021;46(3):411-5. doi:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_429_20.
Dastgiri S, De Bock GH, Sanaat Z, Ranjkesh M, Abbasi Z, Jabbaripour P, et al. Acceptability and compliance with a breast cancer prevention campaign in the Northwest Region, Iran. Breast Cancer Manag. 2022;11(1):BMT62. doi:10.2217/bmt-2021-0004.
Chootipongchaivat S, Wong XY, Ten Haaf K, Hartman M, Tan KB, Van Ravesteyn NT, et al. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Breast Cancer Screening Using Mammography in Singapore: A Modeling StudyCost-effectiveness of Breast Cancer Screening in Singapore. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2021;30(4):653-60. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1230.
Al Mulhim F, Syed A, Bagatadah W, Al Muhanna A. Breast cancer screening programme: experience from Eastern province, Saudi Arabia. East Mediterr Health J. 2015;21(2):111-9.
Lei S, Zheng R, Zhang S, Wang S, Chen R, Sun K, et al. Global patterns of breast cancer incidence and mortality: A population‐based cancer registry data analysis from 2000 to 2020. Cancer Commun. 2021;41(11):1183-94. doi:10.1002/cac2.12207.
Asadzadeh VF, Broeders M, Kiemeney L, Verbeek A. Opportunity for breast cancer screening in limited resource countries: a literature review and implications for Iran. Asian Pacific J Cancer prev.2011;12:2467-75.
Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Breast Cancer
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright©. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International License, which permits copy and redistribution of the material in any medium or format or adapt, remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, except for commercial purposes.