The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Spirituality Therapy in Reducing Anxiety in Women with Breast Cancer Anxiety in women with breast cancer

Main Article Content

Zahra Zari Moin https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4920-0401
Khadijeh Abolmaali Alhosseini https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9714-1816
Mohammad Reza Sirafi https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6285-4605

Keywords

Anxiety, Acceptance and commitment therapy, Spirituality, Breast cancer, Women

Abstract

Background: The experience of anxiety as a bad experience creates a different behavioral, cognitive, and emotional response that preserves annoying thoughts and inefficient beliefs. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and spirituality therapy in reducing anxiety in women with breast cancer in Tehran.


Methods: This was a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design research with a control group and a three-month follow-up. The statistical population comprised women with breast cancer visiting the Gynecological Ultra-Specialized Cancer Center of Khatam-al-Anbya Hospital in Tehran in 2021. In total, 45 women with breast cancer were selected and randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group (n=15). The first and second experimental groups underwent eight 60-minute sessions of ACT and eight 60-minute sessions of spiritual therapy, respectively. The research instruments included the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). The collected data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA.


Results: The results showed that ACT and spiritual therapy significantly reduced generalized anxiety scores in the experimental groups compared to the control group (P<0.01). Moreover, the absence of anxiety significantly increased in the two experimental groups that underwent ACT and spirituality therapy compared to the control group (P<0.01). However, ACT and spirituality therapy did not differ significantly in their effects on the dependent variables.


Conclusion: This study achieved promising results concerning the applicability of ACT and spirituality therapy in reducing anxiety in women with breast cancer.  Based on the results, holding ACT and spirituality therapy workshops may exert beneficial effects on reducing anxiety in women with breast cancer.

References

1. Ghavami S B, Zarani F. Cancer, Covid-19 and the perspective of treatments. Rooyesh. 2021; 10 (4) :207-218. doi: 20.1001.1.2383353.1400.10.4.6.2
2. Vanni G, Pellicciaro M, Materazzo M, Palombi L, Buonomo OC. Breast Cancer Diagnosis in Coronavirus-Era: Alert From Italy. Front Oncol. 2020;10:938. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2020.00938
3. Kianpour Barjoee L, Amin N, Keykhosrovani M, Shafiabadi A. Effectiveness of Positive Thinking Training on Perceived Stress, Metacognitive Beliefs, and Death Anxiety in Women with Breast Cancer. Arch Breast Cancer. 2022; 9(2):195-203. doi: 10.32768/abc.202292195-203
4. Naser AY, Hameed AN, Mustafa N, Alwafi H, Dahmash EZ, Alyami HS, Khalil H. Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study. Front Psychol. 2021;12:585534. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.585534
5. Wells A, Carter K. Further tests of a cognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder: Metacognitions and worry in GAD, panic disorder, social phobia, depression, and nonpatients. Behavior Therapy. 2001;32(1):85-102. 9. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(01)80045-9
6. Tsaras K, Papathanasiou IV, Mitsi D, Veneti A, Kelesi M, Zyga S, Fradelos EC. Assessment of Depression and Anxiety in Breast Cancer Patients: Prevalence and Associated Factors. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018;19(6):1661-1669. doi: 10.22034/apjcp.2018.19.6.1661
7. Villar RR, Fernández SP, Garea CC, Pillado MTS, Barreiro VB, Martín CG. Quality of life and anxiety in women with breast cancer before and after treatment. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2017;25:e2958. doi: 10.1590%2F1518-8345.2258.2958
8. Charalambous A, Kaite CP, Charalambous M, Tistsi T, Kouta C. The effects on anxiety and quality of life of breast cancer patients following completion of the first cycle of chemotherapy. SAGE Open Med. 2017;5:2050312117717507. doi: 10.1177/2050312117717507
9. Hashemi SM, Rafiemanesh H, Aghamohammadi T, Badakhsh M, Amirshahi M, Sari M, Behnamfar N, Roudini K. Prevalence of anxiety among breast cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer. 2020;27(2):166-178. doi: 10.1007/s12282-019-01031-9
10. Johns SA, Stutz PV, Talib TL, Cohee AA, Beck-Coon KA, Brown LF, Wilhelm LR, Monahan PO, LaPradd ML, Champion VL, Miller KD, Giesler RB. Acceptance and commitment therapy for breast cancer survivors with fear of cancer recurrence: A 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial. Cancer. 2020;126(1):211-218. doi: 10.1002/cncr.32518
11. Mosher CE, Secinti E, Li R, Hirsh AT, Bricker J, Miller KD, Schneider B, Storniolo AM, Mina L, Newton EV, Champion VL, Johns SA. Acceptance and commitment therapy for symptom interference in metastatic breast cancer patients: a pilot randomized trial. Support Care Cancer. 2018;26(6):1993-2004. doi: 10.1007/s00520-018-4045-0
12. Ghorbani V, Zanjani Z, Omidi A, Sarvizadeh M. Efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on depression, pain acceptance, and psychological flexibility in married women with breast cancer: a pre- and post-test clinical trial. Trends Psychiatry Psychother. 2021;43(2):126-133. doi: 10.47626/2237-6089-2020-0022
13. Mahdavi A, Aghaei M, Aminnasab V, Tavakoli Z, Besharat M, Abedin M. The Effectiveness of Acceptance-Commitment Therapy (ACT) on Perceived Stress, Symptoms of Depression, and Marital Satisfaction in Women with Breast Cancer. Arch Breast Cancer. 2017;4(1): 16-23. doi: 10.19187/abc.20174116-23
14. Shari NI, Zainal NZ, Ng CG. Effects of brief acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on subjective cognitive impairment in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. J Psychosoc Oncol. 2021;39(6):695-714. doi: 10.1080/07347332.2020.1856283
15. Sadeghi F, Hassani F, Emamipour S, Mirzaei H. Effect of Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy on Quality of Life and Resilience of Women with Breast Cancer. Arch Breast Cancer. 2018;5(2):111-117. doi: 10.19187/abc.201853111-117
16. Hadlandsmyth K, Dindo LN, Wajid R, Sugg SL, Zimmerman MB, Rakel BA. A single-session acceptance and commitment therapy intervention among women undergoing surgery for breast cancer: A randomized pilot trial to reduce persistent postsurgical pain. Psychooncology. 2019;28(11):2210-2217. doi: 10.1002/pon.5209
17. Pargament KI. Spirituality integrated psychotherapy: understanding and addressing the Sacred. New York: Guilford Press. 2007.
18. Leão DCMR, Pereira ER, Pérez-Marfil MN, Silva RMCRA, Mendonça AB, Rocha RCNP, García-Caro MP. The Importance of Spirituality for Women Facing Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A Qualitative Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(12):6415. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18126415
19. Movafagh A, Heidari MH, Abdoljabbari M, Mansouri N, Taghavi A, Karamatinia A, Mehrvar N, Hashemi M, Ghazi M. Spiritual Therapy in Coping with Cancer as a Complementary Medical Preventive Practice. J Cancer Prev. 2017;22(2):82-88. doi: 10.15430/JCP.2017.22.2.82
20. Gall TL, Bilodeau C. Attachment to God and coping with the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer: a longitudinal study. Support Care Cancer. 2020;28(6):2779-2788. doi: 10.1007/s00520-019-05149-6
21. Khoshvaght N, Naderi F, Safarzadeh S, Alizadeh M. Comparison of the Effects of Metacognitive Therapy and Compassion-Focused Therapy on Anxiety in the Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy. Women. Health. Bull. 2021;8(1):1-9. doi: 10.30476/whb.2020.88585.1087
22. Hayes SC, Levin ME, Plumb-Vilardaga J, Villatte JL, Pistorello J. Acceptance and commitment therapy and contextual behavioral science: examining the progress of a distinctive model of behavioral and cognitive therapy. Behav Ther. 2013;44(2):180-198. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2009.08.002
23. Richards PS, Bergin AE. Religious and Spiritual Assessment. A spiritual strategy for counseling and psychotherapy, 2nd ed. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association; 2005. p. 219-49. doi: 10.1037/11214-008
24. Meyer TJ, Miller ML, Metzger RL, Borkovec TD. Development and validation of the penn state worry questionnaire. Behav Res Ther 1990;28:487-95. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(90)90135-6
25. Salehpoor G, Kafi SM, Hatamiyan HR, Mohammadpoor K, Rezaei S. Validation of Persian Version of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire among Multiple Sclerosis Patients. Knowledge and Health in Basic Medical Sciences. 2017;12(1):16-27. doi: 10.22100/jkh.v12i1.1596
26. Mohabbat-Bahar S, Maleki-Rizi F, Akbari ME, Moradi-Joo M. Effectiveness of group training based on acceptance and commitment therapy on anxiety and depression of women with breast cancer. Iran J Cancer Prev. 2015;8(2):71-6. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25960844
27. Waters CS, Annear B, Flockhart G, Jones I, Simmonds JR, Smith S, Traylor C, Williams JF. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for perinatal mood and anxiety disorders: A feasibility and proof of concept study. Br J Clin Psychol. 2020;59(4):461-479. doi: 10.1111/bjc.12261
28. Jafari N, Zamani A, Farajzadegan Z, Bahrami F, Emami H, Loghmani A. The effect of spiritual therapy for improving the quality of life of women with breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Psychol Health Med. 2013;18(1):56-69. doi: 10.1080/13548506.2012.679738
29. Sanaeinasab H, Saffari M, Sheykh-Oliya Z, Khalaji K, Laluie A, Al Zaben F, Koenig HG. A spiritual intervention to reduce stress, anxiety and depression in pregnant women: Randomized controlled trial. Health Care Women Int. 2021;42(12):1340-1357. doi: 10.1080/07399332.2020.1836643
30. Durmuş M, Ekinci M. The Effect of Spiritual Care on Anxiety and Depression Level in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis Treatment: a Randomized Controlled Trial. J Relig Health. 2022;61(3):2041-2055. doi: 10.1007/s10943-021-01386-4
31. Khoramnia S, Bavafa A, Jaberghaderi N, Parvizifard A, Foroughi A, Ahmadi M, Amiri S. The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy for social anxiety disorder: a randomized clinical trial. Trends Psychiatry Psychother. 2020;42(1):30-38. doi: 10.1590/2237-6089-2019-0003

Article Statistics :Views : 187 | Downloads : 47 : 11