Associated Factors with Adopting Preventive Behaviors for Breast Cancer in Iran

Main Article Content

Marzieh Hajikarimbaba
Rahman Panahi
Leila Dehghankar


Preventive behaviors, Breast cancer, Student


Background: Considering the remarkable role of students in society and the relatively high prevalence of breast cancer in women, this study aimed to determine the factors related to adopting preventive behaviors for breast cancer in students.
Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of 375 female students of Qazvin city, who were selected by stratified random sampling during the year 2019. Data collection tools included a demographic and contextual questionnaire and a valid and reliable questionnaire for measuring breast cancer preventive behaviors. Data were analyzed using SPSS 23 software program, descriptive statistics and logistic regression.
Results: Using there was a statistically significant relationship between adopting preventive behaviors against breast cancer and physical activity (P <0.001), so that the chances of adopting good preventive behaviors in students with "occasionally", "rarely" and "never" physical activity were respectively 0.410, 0.113, and 0.098 times chance for the students with daily physical activity. There was a significant relationship between breast cancer prevention and academic years (p= 0.027), so that the chances of adopting good-level preventive behaviors in the senior students was 1.498 times higher than the first year students. There was also a significant relationship between adopting preventive behaviors and employment (P = 0.017), so that the chances of adopting good-level preventive behaviors in unemployed students was 1.725 times higher than that of the employed students.
Conclusion: Students with lower education and less physical activity and the employed individuals less commonly adopted preventive behaviors. Therefore, it is necessary to pay more attention to these students in designing educational programs.


Muhammad Abdul Hadi , Mohamed Azmi Hassali ,Asrul Akmal Shafie, Ahmed Awaisu. Knowledge and Perception of Breast Cancer among Women of Various Ethnic Groups in the State of Penang: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Med Princ Pract 2010;19:61–67 .
2. Khiyali Z1, Aliyan F, Kashfi SH, Mansourian M, Khani Jeihooni A. Educational Intervention on Breast Self-Examination Behavior in Women Referred to Health Centers: Application of Health Belief Model. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2017 26;18(10):2833-2838.
3. Khadijah Kalan Farman Farma, Zahra Jalili, Iraj Zareban, and Mahnaz Shahraki Pour . Effect of education on preventive behaviors of breast cancer in female teachers of guidance schools of Zahedan city based on health belief model. J Educ Health Promot. 2014; 3: 77.
4. Akbari ME, Sayad S, Sayad S, et al. Breast Cancer Status in Iran: Statistical Analysis of 3010 Cases between 1998 and 2014. Int J Breast Cancer. 2017;2017:2481021.
5. Observatory TGC (2018) GLOBOCAN. Breast Cancer 2019. factsheets/cancers/20-Breast-factsheet.pdf 2. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A Cancer statistics 2019; 69(1):7–34
6. Motahare Pilevarzadeh ,Mehrbanoo Amirshahi, Roghaiyeh Afsargharehbagh, Hosein Rafemanesh, Seyed Mehdi Hashemi, Abbas Balouchi. REVIEW Global prevalence of depression among breast cancer patients: a systematic review and meta analysis . Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2019 ; 176:519–533.
7. DeSantis C, Siegel R, Bandi P, Jemal A. Breast cancer statistics, 2011. CA Cancer J Clin 2011;61:409-418
8. Behjat Marzbani , Javad Nazari , Farid Najafi , Behnaz Marzbani , Sara Shahabadi , Mahin Amini , Mehdi Moradinazar , Yahya Pasdar , Ebrahim et al. Dietary patterns, nutrition, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in the west of Iran . Epidemiol Health. 2019;41: e2019003.
9. Behzad Baradaran , Khalil Hajiasgharzadeh. Breast Cancer Among Young Women in Iran .International Journal of Women’s Health and Reproduction Sciences 2019; 7(2).
10. Aghaeian N, Farahaninia M, Janmohamadi S, Haghani H. Association between health literacy and preventive behaviors of breast cancer in women. Journal of Health Literacy. Summer 2019; 4(2):9-17.
11.Hajian–Tilaki KO, Kaveh-Ahangar T. Reproductive factors associated with breast cancer risk in northern Iran. Med Oncol 2011; 28: 441-6. 10. Hajian-Tilaki KO, Gholizadehpasha AR, Bozorgzadeh S, Hajian-Tilaki E. Body mass index and waist circumference are predictor biomarkers of breast cancer risk in Iranian women. Med Oncol 2011; 28: 1296-301
12. Yazdani-Charati R, Hajian-Tilaki K, Sharbatdaran M. Comparison of pathologic characteristics of breast cancer in younger and older women. Caspian J Intern Med 2019; 10(1): 42-47.
13. Onsory K, Ranapoor S. Breast Cancer and the Effect of Environmental Factors Involved. NCMBJ. 2011; 1 (4) :59-70.
14. Torkizade S, Soltanian Z, DavariDolatabadi N. Awareness of female nursing, midwifery and para medicine students of Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences in relation to the risk factors, prognosis and prevention of breast cancer. Journal of Modern Medical Information Sciences. 2017; 3 (1) :22-28. [Persian]
15. Miri M, Moodi M, Moasheri B, Sourgi Z, Hami J. A Applied Health Belief Model (H.B.M) in Adopting Preventive Behaviors in Breast Cancer by Female Teachers of Birjand. jha. 2004; 7 (17) :51-57 URL: article-1-86-en.html
16. Khazaee-Pool et al.: Breast cancer-preventive behaviors: exploring Iranian women’s experiences. BMC Women's Health 2014 14:41.
17. Bozorgi N, Khani S, Elyasi F, Moosazadeh M, Janbabaei G, Shojaee L. A Review of Strategies to Promote Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors in Women . J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 2018; 28 (165) :243-255 .[Persian]
18. Monfared A, Ghanbari A, Jansar Hosseini L, Norozi N. Status of Screening by Mammography and its Related Factors in the General Population of Women in Rasht . IJN. 2017; 30 (107) :32-41.
19. Andsoy II, Gul A. Breast, cervix and colorectal cancer knowledge among nurses in Turkey. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2014;15:2267-72.
20. Early J, Armstrong SN, Burke S, Thompson DL. US female college students’ breast health knowledge, attitudes, and determinants of screening practices: new implications for health education. Journal of American College Health 2011; 59:640-7
21. Tehrani H, Rahmani M, Jafari A. Health literacy and Its relationship with general health of women referring to health care centers. Journal of Health Literacy. Fall 2018; 3(3): 42-48.
22. Smith DR. A systematic review of tobacco smoking among nursing students. Nurse Education in Practice. 2007; 7(5): 293-302.
23. Dehghankar L, Hajikarimbaba M, Panahi R. Health Literacy and Factors Related to It Among Female Students of Imam Khomeini International University in Qazvin, Iran. sjsph. 2019; 17 (3) :295-306 .[Persian]
24. Vakili M, Pirdehghan A, Adimi M, Sadeghian M, Akhondi M. Epidemiology and trend of cancer in Yazd, a central province of Iran, 2005-2009. Journal of research in health sciences. 2014; 14(3): 210-3.
25. Didarloo a, Shorkhabi z, Pourali R. survey of knowledge, worry and screening behavior towards breast cancea among female students of urmia university of medical sciences, in 2014. Journal of Urmia Nursing And Midwifery Faculty. 2016;14(3):201-12. [Persian]
26. Kalan FarmanFarma K, Zareban I, Jalili Z, Shahraki pour M, Lotfi B. The Effect of Education on Condition of Knowledge, Attitude and Preventive Behaviors of Breast Cancer in Female Teachers at Guidance Schools in Zahedan. Journal of Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences 2013;1:65-73
27.Dafei M, Dehghani A, Momeni Z, Kalanfarmanfarma K, Koohgardi M, Jalali M et al . Study of breast cancer knowledge, attitude, and preventive behaviors among women referring to health-treatment centers in Yazd, Iran, 2015. Pajouhan Scientific Journal 2017; 15: 46-53. [Persian]
28. Matos JC, Pelloso SM, Carvalho MD. Factors associated with secondary breast cancer prevention in Maringá. Paraná State, Brazil. Cadernos de saúde pública 2011; 27: 888-98
29. Nourizadeh R, Bakhtari aghdam F, Sahebi L. A survey on the knowledge and beliefs and behaviors of women referring to health centers in Tabriz regarding breast cancer and its screening methods, 2010. Iranian Journal of Breast Diseases 2010; 3: 43-51. [Persian]
30. Saremi A, Moradzadeh R, Mohammadi Bonchenari S. Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevalence: A Case Control Study in Arak, Iran (2017-2018) .Iranian Quarterly Journal of Breast Disease. 2019; 12(1):29-38.
31. Colditz G, Hankinson S. The nurse's health study: lifestyle and health among women. Nat Rev Cancer. 2005; 5(5):388-96.
32. Friedenreich C, Cust A. Physical activity and breast cancer risk: impact of timing, type and dose of activity and population subgroup effects. Br J Sports Med. 2008; 42(8):636-47.
33. Demirkiran F, Ozgun H, Eskin M, Turk G, Cam R, Ozgun O, Demirkiran AE Cognition of breast cancer among gestational age Turkish women: a cross-ectional study. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2011; 12:277-82.
34. soltanahmadi Z, Abbaszadeh A, Tirgari B. [A survey on the rate and causes of wo men’s participation or nonparticipation in breast and cervical cancers screening programs]. Iran J Obstetr Gynecol Infertil 2010; 13: 37-46. [Persian]
35. Salimi PS, Kariman N, Sheykhan Z, Alavi MH. [Investigation of breast cancer screening tests performance and affecting factors in women referred to Ardebil’s health and medical centers]. J Ardebil Univ Med Sci 2010; 10: 310-8. [Persian]
36. Farshbaf KA, Shahnazi M, Ghahvechi A, Thorabi H. [Performance conditions of breast cancer screening methods and its efficient factors among women referring to health centers of Tabriz]. Iran J Nurs Res 2009; 4: 27-38. [Persian]
37.GodazandehGh.A, Khani H, Khalilian AR, Atarod Z, FirozJaei MA, Partovi A, TayebiFard H. Knowledge and practice of above 15 years old females towards breast cancer prevention in Sari township, 2004. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences 2006;16: 74-64
38.Karimi H, Sam Sh. Effect of breast self-examination (BSE) education on increasing women’s knowledge and practice, Ramsar. Journal of Babol University of Medical Sciences 2005; 7: 68-1.
39. Ziaeefard Z, AbdollahiKh, ZahediR,RahmanianS, Rahmnian K. knowledge of breast self-examination and mammography women marred over 20 years old referred to health center in south Iran. Journal of Jahrom university medical science 2011; 10:49-55.
40. Baba pour N, Nasiri R, Mir rajaee AS. Evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and performance of female personnels of Mashhad Azad university hospitas about breast cancer. Journal of Medical Sciences of Islamic azad university of Mashhad 2014;4(1):1-22. [Persian]
41. Anvari K, Mosavi H, Kavosi F, Silian Tosi M. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of female students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences regarding risk factors, early diagnosis and methods of breast cancer prevention. Iranian Journal of Breast Disease 2012;6(2,3):32-43. [Persian]
42. Rasta H, SHokohi L, Dehghani L, Motamed jahromi M. Knowledge and practice of Fasa women about breast cancer in 7342. Journal of Fasa University of Medical Sciences 2013;3 (7) 16-82. [Persian]
43. Raisi M, Javadzadeh S , Sharifi Rad Gh , Yarmohammadi P. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Female Employees of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences about Breast Self-Examination. Journal of Health System Research 2011 ; 1 (2:) 747-744. [Persian]