Prediction of Hope of Life Based on Spiritual Well-being and Psychological Hardiness in Women With Breast Cancer

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Sedigheh Hoseini
Bita Nasrolahi
Mahdi Aghili


Hope, Spiritual well-being, Psychological hardiness, Breast cancer


Background: Psychological factors such as hope of life can slow cancer progression by improving immune function, which results in better protection against illness and may help the body to fight cancer. It is of high importance in cancer patients, especially in women with breast cancer who may experience more stress. The present study investigated the predictability of hope of life based on spiritual well-being and psychological hardiness in women with breast cancer.
Methods: The population of this study included all women with breast cancer who were referred to Cancer Institute of Iran for follow-up in the fall of 2016. One-hundred four patients were recruited based on purposive sampling. They completed the validated questionnaires for hope, spiritual well-being, and psychological hardiness (consisting of commitment, control, and challenge subscales). Data were analyzed by using Pearson's correlation coefficient and hierarchical multiple regression.
Results: Finding indicated a significant positive relationship between hope of life and spiritual well-being as well as psychological hardiness (commitment, control, and challenge) in women with breast cancer (P < 0.01). Spiritual well-being explained 39.5% of the variance in hope of life (P < 0.01). Psychological hardiness explained 16.7% of the variance in hope of life (P < 0.01), and only the commitment subscale predicted hope of life (P < 0.01) in women with breast cancer.
Conclusion: According to this study, patients with higher spiritual well-being and higher commitment (a subscale of psychological hardiness) had greater hope of life. Psychological interventions for strengthening these factors in women with breast cancer are suggested.

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