The role and application of metaphor in creatioThe Role and Application of Metaphor in Preventing Breast Cancer Phobian the phobia of breast cancer

Main Article Content

Malahat Shabani Minnabad

Keywords

Breast cancer, Conceptual metaphors, Breast cancer phobia

Abstract

Background: Specialists, researchers, patients, and even their families use metaphors to describe diseases. Metaphors are known to be central tools in both communication and thinking. Crucially, even though many metaphors become conventionalized, metaphor choices are seldom neutral.


Methods: This study investigated metaphors associated with breast cancer using data from SID, magiran, and noormags databases.


Results: The results showed that a number of medical concepts of cancer are expressed using conceptual metaphors, and that Persian speakers use different metaphors to express medical concepts related to breast cancer, such as "breast cancer is bad", "breast cancer results in an inactive life", and so on. These metaphors can have both positive and negative effects on common perceptions of breast cancer. The use of metaphors to address diseases, especially breast cancer, can cause feelings of fear and phobia among patients directly or indirectly, leading to a lack of timely referral for early treatment, fear of stigma or loneliness and death.


Conclusion: The findings of this research can inform experts, researchers and doctors that the use of words can be both curative and destructive. Thus, they should consider this issue in their careers and statements.

References

1-Adams, J. 2010. Motivational narratives of assessments of the body after cosmetic surgery. Qualitative Health Research, 20(6): 755–67.
2-Kennifer SL, Alexander SC, Pollak KI, Jeffreys AS, Olsen MK, Rodriguez KL, Arnold RM, Tulsky JA. Negative emotions in cancer care: Do oncologists' responses depend on severity and type of emotion? Patient Education Counseling. 2009;76(1):51–56.
3-Wahhabis M, Izadifar R. The use of metaphor in the expression of cancer. Comparative Linguistics Research, 1398; 9 (18): 207-224. doi: 10.22084 / rjhll.2019.19500.1949.
4-Sontag, S. Illness and its metaphors and AIDS and its metaphors. 1979, London: Penguin Books.
5-Altmann C. Cancer, poetry and metaphor. Colloquy text theory critique.2008: No. 15. 7- 35.
6-Amanda P. Elena S. Cancer as a Metaphor, Metaphor and Symbol, 34:2, 81-95, DOI: 10.1080/10926488.2019.1611723.
7-Moradi M, Homayi Shandiz F, Shamsian A A, Eftekharzadeh M I, Hedayati M M, Bidkhoori H. The relationship between HER2 / neu and p53 genes and estrogen and progesterone receptors with survival rates in Iranian women with breast cancer. Iranian Journal of Breast Disease Research. 2008; 1 (2): 7-17.
8-Pragglejaz Group . MIP: A method for identifying metaphorically used words in discourse. Metaphor and symbol,2007, 22(1), 1-40.